April 18, 2007

MB in Algeria, Palestine, Somalia...

The Muslim Brotherhood in Algeria is known by the name of the Movement for the Society of Peace (MSP), led by Mahfoud Nahnah until his death in 2003. In 1995, he ran for President of Algeria getting 25.38 % of the popular vote. The Movement for the Society of Peace, which changed its name from Hamas, received 7% of the vote in the 2002 elections and has 38 members in the parliament.

The Islamic Resistance Movement, or Hamas, founded in 1987 in Gaza, is a wing of the Brotherhood, formed out of Brotherhood-affiliated charities that had gained a strong foothold among the local population. During the First Intifada (1987-93), Hamas militarized and transformed into one of the most violent Palestinian militant groups. Hamas had refused to accept the 1993 Oslo Accords, and has, particularly during the al-Aqsa Intifada, launched a series of attacks (including suicide bombings) against Israeli civilians.

The Jordanian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood was formed in 1942, and is a strong factor in Jordanian politics. While most political parties and movements were banned for a long time in Jordan, the Brotherhood was exempted and allowed to operate by the Jordanian monarchy. The Jordanian Brotherhood has formed its own political party, the Islamic Action Front, which has the largest number of seats of any party in the Jordanian parliament.

The Muslim Brotherhood's main objective in Sudan was to Islamize the society and to institutionalize the Islamic law throughout the country where they succeeded. The Brotherhood penetrated into the ruling political organizations, the state army and security personal, the national and regional assemblies, the youth and women organizations of Sudan. They also launched their own mass organizations among the youth and women such as the shabab al-binna, and raidat al-nahda, and launched educational campaigned to Islamize the communities throughout the country. At the same time, they gain control of several newly founded, Islamic missionary and relief organizations, which led to spread their ideology. The Brotherhood members took control of the newly established Islamic Banks as directors, administrators, employees and legal advisors. Therefore the Islamic banks became the source of power for the Brotherhood. The Brotherhood of Sudan gain power for the process of the Islamicization of the laws, politics, the state and society of Sudan.

Somalia’s Muslim Brotherhood is known by the name Harakat Al-Islah or "Reform Movement". Nonetheless, the Brotherhood, has inspired many Islamist organizations in Somalia. Muslim Brotherhood ideology reached Somalia in the 1960s, but Al-Islah movement was formed in 1978 and slowly grew in the 1980s. The organization structured itself loosely and was not openly visible on the political scene of Somali society. They chose to remain a secret movement fearing the repressive regime of Said Barre. However, they emerged from secrecy when the regime collapsed in 1991 and started working openly thereafter. Most Somalis were surprised to see the new group they had never heard of, which was in the country since 1970s in secrecy.


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